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About Bangladesh

The Emerg'ence of Bangladesh as an independent state exemplifies an unprecedented struggle for freedom marked by intrepid sacrifices, un-flagging determination, and by love, Following a historical journey of epic-proportions, through untold miseries and sufferings, massive movements and protests, the people of Bangladesh achieved their independence on 15 December, 1971.

Bangladesh is a low-lying country, It encompasses an area of 55,598 square miles or 143.998 square kilometers. The country is almost surrounded by India except for a short south-eastern frontier with Burma, and a southern irregular deltaic coastline that faces the Bay of Bengal. The limits of territorial waters of Bangladesh do not exceed 12 nautical miles; the area of the high seas extending to 200 nautical miles measured from the baselines constitutes the economic zone of the country.

The physiographic characteristics of Bangladesh are almost homogeneous with the dominance of . the low, flat alluvial soil spread over the country; the hilly regions lie only in the north-east and the south-e'ast, and some areas of high lands lie in the north and north-western parts of the country. The most obvious physiographic image characterizing the landscape of Bangladesh is its extensive network of rivers that contribute considerably to the socio-economic life of the nation,

The population of Bangladesh, estimated at about 100,6 million in 1985, is ethnically heterogeneous, The tribes inhabiting different parts of the country are discernible in terms of language, race, religion and customs. The people of Bangladesh practice a variety of religions like Islam, Hinduism, Christianity and Buddhism, though Islam is the State religion of the country. Indeed in Bangladesh, Islam constitutes a strong social force, and the meaning of the' Islamic ethics and the indigenous, traditional culture of Bengal has gone into the shaping of a cultural heritage that is unique to Bangladesh. More than 98 percent of the People in Bangladesh speak Bangla. However, English and arabic are widely understood in Bangladesh.

The economy of Bangladesh is predominantly agrarian. Rice, wheat, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, oilseeds, pulses ar:d potatoes are the principal crops produced in the country, the minor crops, on the other hand, include tea, fruits, vegetables, spices, cotton and fodder. Approximately 15 percent of the cultivated land is used for crops other than rice and jute. Though Bangladesh possesses one of the most fertile lands, it has been a fo.od deficit area for a long time owing to low per acre yield, paucity of capital and lack of necessary inputs,

Industrialization in bangladesh has hitherto been small in scale and scope. However, quite a number of large-scale industries based on both indigenous and imported raw materials have been set up, the most notable ones among them being jute and cotton textile, paper and newsprint, sugar cement, chemicals, fertilizers and tanneries garments. Other important industries include engineer­ing and ship-building, iron and steel, ceramic, garments and pharmaceutical. Bangladesh is also known to have a tradition of cottage industries encompassing handlooms, carpet-making, shoe­making, coir, bamboo and cane products, earthenware, bidi, mini-implements, ornaments, etc, The industrial. sector contributing around 10 percent of the GDP is dominated by jute processing followed by cotton textile and cigarettes, 2 percent of its GDP is dominated by garments industry.

Country Profile:

Official Name :
The People's Republic of Bangladesh
Capital :
Dhaka : Area-1416 Sq.Km. Population 9.9 million in 2001
President :
Professor Dr. Iajuddin Ahmed
Geographical Location :
Between 23°.34' and 26°.38' north latitude and between 88°.41' and 92°.41' east longitude.
Area :
1,47,570 Territorial Waters 22.22 km. Economic Zome-Upto 370.40 km. in the high seas, measured from the base line.
Boundary :
  North: India
  West : India
  East : India and and Mayanmar
  South: Bay of Bengal
Religion (Census 1991) :
Islam (88.3%), Hinduism (10.5%), Buddhism (0.6%) and Christianity(0.3%)
Unit of Currency :
Taka (1 USD = 70 Tk. Approximately)
Time :
GMT+6.00 hours.
Administrative Units :
Division: 6;   Zila: 64;   Thana: 507;  Union: 4484;   Village: 87319
Major Cities :
Dhaka, Chittagong. Khulna, Rajshahi, Mymensing, Comilla, Barisal, Sylhet.
Climate :
:Average Winter temp (Max 29° C Min 11° C ).
  Average Summer temp (Max 40° C Min 21° C)
Monsoon Rainfall :
Lowest 340mm. Highest 964 mm.
Humidity :
Highest 99% Lowest 36 %
Main Seasons :
Winter (November – February ), Summer (May –June), Monsoon (July –  October)
Population in Census 2001 :
Approximately 129 million;Growth rate 1.48% per annum; Sex ratio 103.8 males   per 100 females; Urban Population 23.39%. ;No of household units 25.36 million ;Density per square km 834.
Language :
Bengali but English is widely used.
Principal River :
Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Bhahmaputra, Teesta, Surma and Karnaphuli in   all 700 rivers including tributaries and branches.
Principal Minerals :
Natural Gas, Lignite Coal, Limestones, Ceramic, Clay and Glass Sand.
Principal Crops :
Rice, Jackfruit, Jute, Tobacco, Sugarcane, Pulses, Oilseeds, Spices,   Potatoes, Vegetables, Bananas, Mangoes, Coconut, Tea and Wheat.
Principal Industries :
Garments, Jute, Cotton, Textile, Tea, Paper, Newsprint, Cement, Fertilizer, Sugar, Engineering, Electric cables , Leather, Fish.
Principal Exports :
Readymade garments, Jute and Jute products, Tea, Leather and  Frozen food.

Goldern Fiber of Bangladesh (The Cultivators are processing Jute)
Sea Ports :
Chittagong and Mongla.
Airports :
Dhaka, Chittagong , Jessore, Rajshahi, Iswardi, Sylhet, Cox’s Bazar,  Syedpur and Barisal .
Radio Station :
Dhaka,Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet, Comilla,Jessore,Bogra, Cox's Bazar, Barisal,Rangamati and Thakurgaon .
Television Station :
Dhaka, Natore, Chittagong, Brahamanbaria ,Patuakhali,Jhenaidah,Thakurgaon, Rajshahi, Satkhira, Rangamati, Cox's Bazar, Noakhali, Sylhet,Mymenshing,Khulna and Rangpur
Satellite Station :
Betbunia ( Chittagong) and Talibabad (Dhaka) for international   telecommunication.
Education(1999 based) :
Universities: 32; Medical Collage: 24; Bangladesh Institute of Technology: 4; Colleges 2288; Polytechnic Institutes  21; Secondary School 14069; Primary School 65610
Health (1999 based) :
Hospitals 1277; Hospital beds 44374;Registered physician: 30864
Electricity :
220 Volts A.C. in all cities and towns.
Tourist Season :
October to March
Main Tourist Attractions. :
Colourful tribal life of Hill Tracts, world’s longest sea beach at Cox’s Bazar, centuries old historical sites at Dhaka , Paharpur, Mainamati, Mohastangar, Sundarban the home of the Royal Bengal Tiger, largest tea garden, reverine life, ect.
Wearing Apparel :
Tropical in Summer and Light woolen in Winter.

Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Bangladesh (
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